EARTHQUAKE  TRIGGERING,
EARTHQUAKE  PRECURSOR  SIGNAL  GENERATION,
AND  EARTHQUAKE  SENSITIVITY  THEORY  PICTURES

Latest Update:   May 20, 2004

Earthquake Triggering     Earthquake Precursor Signal Generation
Earthquake Sensitive Humans, Animals, And Plants
Earthquake Triggering Forcess    Reference Information


       Site visitors are invited to make suggestions regarding additions to or corrections to these general theory pictures. Please send the suggestions to: seismic@ix.netcom.com.

       Many of the individual theories outlined here have been proposed by and discussed by researchers around the world over the years.  And one goal is to try to locate and include references to as many of those researchers’ publications as possible.


EARTHQUAKE  TRIGGERING

       The following theory pictures propose how earthquakes are being triggered.  Just a few of the most important earthquake triggering forces and phenomena are being discussed.  A number of others are listed in the following report:  Earthquake Triggering Processes.

A - 1   The movement of tectonic plates relative to one another and other processes cause strain to build in earthquake fault zones around the world.

A - 2   Various obstacles such as the resistance of rock layers to smoothly slip past one another cause that strain energy to build to dangerously high levels in some fault zones.

A - 3   Enough strain eventually accumulates in the fault zone rock layers to overcome those obstacles. And some of that stored energy is released in the form of a powerful earthquake.

A - 4   Two groups of forces, phenomena, and factors which can affect earthquake triggering are ones related to the gravitational pulls of the sun and the moon on the Earth, and fault zone environmental factors such as it north and south or east and west orientation.

A - 5   External forces or phenomena such as atmospheric storm related wind drag on continents and fault zone rock layer heating associated with solar and geomagnetic storms can temporarily or permanently add or subtract sufficient amounts of strain energy to or from the fault zone to move an earthquake occurrence time forward or backwards hours, days, or weeks in time.

A - 6   Forces or phenomena such as shockwaves from powerful earthquakes occurring around the world or nuclear tests can produce permanent instabilities in a fault zone and move the earthquake occurrence time forward or backwards days, weeks, months, decades, and even centuries in time.

A - 7   The actual earthquake occurrence time window is often finally determined by strain which is temporarily or permanently added to the fault zone by forces or phenomena which are directly and/or indirectly associated with the gravitational pulls of the sun and the moon. Some of those phenomena would be ocean tides and the Solid Earth Tide.

       The following drawing shows how forces related to the gravitational pulls of the sun and the moon on the Earth's crust can trigger an earthquake. A fault zone running east and west (EW) may fracture when the gravitational pulls of the sun and the moon pull it towards the north and the south at the same time. And a fault zone running north and south (NS) may fracture when the gravitational pulls of the sun and the moon pull it towards the east and the west at the same time.

Fault Zone Environment

A - 8   Two specific earthquake triggering force related theories are presently being considered. The first (see D – 1) involves earthquake triggering pressure being directly exerted on the Earth’s crust by the gravitational pulls of the sun and the moon. The second (see D – 2) involves earthquake triggering pressure being exerted on the crust by the Earth’s solid core as it attempts to move away from the sun – Earth – moon barycenter or center of mass which the core, the crust, the Earth as a whole, and the moon rotate around once each month.

A - 9   When forces or phenomena such as atmospheric and earthquake related shockwaves move the earthquake occurrence time forward or backwards in time from when it would have ordinarily occurred then the occurrence time shifts to another distinct time window which is controlled by the gravity related forces. Shift like that do not involve arbitrary amounts of time.

A - 10   Sun and moon gravity related forces and phenomena can reach high and low strength points in a number of different time cycles. Several of the most important cycles are multiples of roughly 6.25 hours (including 24 hours and 50 minutes) and multiples of about 7 days (including 28 days).

A - 11   A number of cycles having the same time length can be active at a given time. For example, one 6 hour cycle may be controlled by the position of the moon in the sky while at the same time another 6 hour cycle is controlled by the location of ocean tide crests and troughs.

A - 12   Which time cycles control occurrence times for earthquakes in a given fault zone system is strongly related to how forces and phenomena related to the cycles cause different rock layer sections in the fault zone system to be bent, stretched, or compressed in relation to one another. Another way of saying that is to state that what might be described as time cycle controlled Pressure Waves within the Earth's crust are actually triggering most earthquakes.

A - 13   It has been proposed by at least one researcher that in most cases earthquake occurrence times are linked with points of high and low strain in the time cycles while a smaller percentage of earthquake occurrence times are linked with the times when time cycle related earthquake triggering forces are experiencing their most rapid change in strength.

A - 14   Earthquake aftershocks are often not random events as far as their occurrence times are concerned. Those times are frequently controlled in part by those sun and moon gravity related time cycles. In fact, the aftershocks are even more likely to be controlled by them than the original earthquake.


EARTHQUAKE PRECURSOR SIGNAL GENERATION

Only a few earthquake precursor signal generation related processes are being discussed here.

B - 1   Phenomena such as the piezoelectric effect cause different types of electromagnetic energy field fluctuations to be generated in fault zones in the days, weeks, months, and years before earthquakes occur.

B - 2   Geomagnetic storm energy (which often has its origins in solar storms) can interact with fault zones and in the process contribute to or amplify certain fault zone activity related electromagnetic energy field fluctuations.

B - 3   Solar storm activity is associated with events taking place in and around the sun.  Interactions between solar storms and the Earth's geomagnetic field and earthquake fault zones are affected by the nature of the solar storm and also the orientation of the sun's magnetic field lines relative to those of the Earth.  About every 7 days the sun magnetic field lines orientation can shift from being in the same direction as those of the Earth to being in the opposite direction.

B - 4   Earthquake fault zone activity related electromagnetic energy fields can be focused in specific directions by a variety of phenomena. As a result before an earthquake a sensor located a certain distance on one side of the fault zone might be detecting strong energy field fluctuations while another one an equal distance away on the fault zone's other side might not detect anything. This is one of the important reasons that some energy field detectors give the appearance of not producing consistent results.

B - 5   The geomagnetic storm - earthquake fault zone interactions take place most often during the days and weeks just before an earthquake occurs when the fault zone’s rock layer's physical, chemical, and electrical properties change as it gets close to fracturing. But they can also take place months and perhaps years before the earthquake occurs.

B - 6   Phenomena such as lighting strikes and I believe geomagnetic storms can cause low frequency radio waves to be generated. I expect that events taking place within fault zones can also cause them to be generated.

       Those radio waves can travel around the world with relatively little loss in signal strength. Air is a reasonably good conductor for them. Water is better. And metal is best.

       As they interact with fault zones and/or when they are generated as the result of fault zone activities, information regarding fault zone events can be superimposed on them and then be carried by them around the world.

B - 7   Some fault zone event related electromagnetic energy field fluctuations range in time from 0.25 seconds to perhaps 30 seconds in duration. Others may persist for hours, days, and even weeks.

B - 8   Because the times when those energy field fluctuations occur can be controlled by forces or phenomena related to the gravitational pulls of the sun and the moon and also forces or phenomena related to geomagnetic storms etc., the fluctuations can occur at high strain level times etc. in the same time cycles which control earthquake occurrence times. Or they can occur at somewhat random looking times which may be days, weeks, or months apart.

B - 9   Other earthquake precursors possibly related to electromagnetic energy field fluctuations have been reported over the years. They would include Earthquake Lights which are a type of temporary, local luminescence, glowing balls of light which may be suspended in the air, and static noise on radio, television, and telephone transmissions.

B - 10   Interactions taking place between earthquake fault zones located even great distances apart can result in signals being generated which are stronger than they might otherwise be. For a hypothetical example, an approaching 8.0 magnitude earthquake in one fault zone might cause a signal associated with a 4.0 magnitude earthquake which is about to occur in another, distant fault zone to be amplified to a point where it appears to be for a 6.0 magnitude earthquake.


EARTHQUAKE SENSITIVE HUMANS, ANIMALS, AND PLANTS

C - 1   Electromagnetic energy field fluctuations linked with fault zone events and in some cases also with low frequency radio waves which are affected by or generated as a result of fault zone events, can produce strong reactions in humans, animals, and perhaps some plants.

C - 2   Various groups of organisms such as dogs and catfish will have different types of and different levels of sensitivity to those energy field fluctuations. And within a single group of organisms such as dogs different members will experience different types of and different levels of sensitivity to those energy field fluctuations.

C - 3   The responses of different organisms to the energy field fluctuations can result from basic energy field - biological system interactions. Those types of interactions would be similar to having water heated by the energy field of a microwave oven.

C - 4   They can result as side effects of energy field - biological system interactions which the evolutionary process has deliberately built into the members of a specific group of organisms for some reason such as to provide them with an ability to detect light or to sense the orientation of the Earth's magnetic field.

C - 5   They can result from energy field - biological system interactions which result from a deliberate effort by the evolutionary process to provide the members of a specific group of organisms with an ability to detect the approach of an earthquake.

C - 6   I have never heard about any research being done on plant sensitivity to those energy field fluctuations and am simply assuming that such effects probably exist.

C - 7   Earthquake sensitive animals may become temporarily agitated and/or disoriented by those energy field fluctuations. Some pet animals may wander away from home and become lost.

C - 8   Animals respond mostly to energy field fluctuations which are linked with events taking place in local earthquake fault zones. However, an occasional animal will be able to sense those fluctuations when they are associated with fault zones which are hundreds of miles away.

C - 9   Some pet animals which might behave as though they are earthquake sensitive are actually responding to fault zone activity related behavioral changes etc. which they are observing in their earthquake sensitive human owners.

C - 10   All humans are probably earthquake sensitive to some degree. Some fraction of the population is sufficiently sensitive to be able to clearly tell when a local earthquake is going to occur. A small fraction are sufficiently sensitive to be able to detect signals associated with earthquakes occurring around the world.

C - 11   Earthquake sensitive humans may experience physical, random or monthly type hormonal, emotional, and brain activity related responses to those energy field fluctuations. Headaches are among the most common responses. Nausea and dizziness can occur. Some people may experience abrupt, strong, and temporary or even somewhat longer lasting mood swings. High or low frequency tones may be heard in one ear or the other or in both ears at the same time. Short duration muscle jolts are common. Physical pain or some other type of sensation in a hand or foot and in extreme cases actual physical injury can occur. Dreams may be influenced by those energy field fluctuations. Especially sensitive people may begin hearing voices or seeing ghostly images. I believe that some people might begin seeing auras of different colors surrounding other people.

C - 12   Some earthquake sensitives can determine from which hand or foot is being affected by those energy field fluctuations etc. roughly where on the planet an approaching earthquake is likely to occur.

C - 13   Because water is a good conductor for the low frequency radio waves, earthquake sensitive humans will sometimes experience stronger reactions to the fault zone activity related energy field fluctuations when they stand near a large body of water such as on the ocean shore. Their reactions may get abruptly stronger when they stand near metal water pipes in a house and even when they begin running tap water into the kitchen sink.

C - 14   People who have water dowsing abilities are probably often detecting those energy field fluctuations as the signals travel through underground sources of water. I understand that dowsers are not usually able to detect the presence of electrically isolated bodies of water such as water present in a plastic swimming pool.

C - 15   Diet modification and dietary supplements can at times be used to control painful headaches or other undesired responses to those fault zone activity related electromagnetic energy field fluctuations. Common pain control medications such as aspirin may help. People who are strongly earthquake sensitive may need to rely on prescription drugs. Certain types of medications and foods can temporarily increase a person's sensitivity to the energy field fluctuations.

       Biofeedback can reportedly help reduce earthquake sensitivity. And I would expect that hypnosis might also work for some people.

       Some earthquake sensitives have reportedly been able to reduce the number and severity of their headaches or mood shifts etc. by moving to some other part of the country where fault zone activity related electromagnetic energy field fluctuations are weaker or at least different. After such a move it might require several weeks for the undesired energy field related responses to be reduced in strength.

C - 16   An inexpensive and effective way to detect approaching earthquakes might involve having a number of people who are earthquake sensitive contact some central facility when they were having earthquake warning experiences such as headaches. If 100 in some area were reporting in and only few in surrounding areas were doing the same then that might be a sign that an earthquake was about to occur near that first area. Additionally, earthquake forecasters and researchers could always ask them for more information when desired. That is obviously not possible with earthquake sensitive animals or conventional radio signal receivers or seismic activity monitors.  See:  A Demonstration Earthquake Prediction Program


EARTHQUAKE TRIGGERING FORCES

D - 1   An External Source Of Earthquake Triggering Pressure On The Earth’s Crust

       As the following drawing shows, the Gravity Point is the location on the surface of the Earth where the combined gravitational pulls of the sun and the moon are strongest.

Sun - Earth - Moon Barycenter

       As the Earth rotates each day on its North and South Pole axis, its crust on the side which is rotating towards the Gravity Point is accelerated by the sun and moon gravity while the side moving away from the Gravity Point is decelerated or slowed. That creates strain within the crust. And earthquakes are triggered at locations where that strain causes the crust to be bent, stretched, or compressed in just the right directions.

D - 2   An Internal Source Of Earthquake Triggering Pressure On The Earth’s Crust

       As that previous drawing shows, once each month the Earth and the moon rotate around a sun – Earth – moon barycenter or center of mass which is a certain distance down beneath the surface of the Earth. The location of that barycenter is constantly moving towards and away from the center of the Earth depending upon the location of the sun relative to the moon. And it is constantly moving around the location of a line drawn between the center of the Earth and the center of the moon.

       The solidified iron believed to be the major component of the Earth’s core is roughly 5 times as heavy or dense as the material in the Earth’s crust. As both the core and the crust rotate around that barycenter once each month the mass of the Earth in general attempts to assume the shape of an egg with its ends pointing away from the barycenter. And the solid core tries to move in a direction almost directly away from both that barycenter and from the location of the moon.

       The Earth’s gravity, rotation, and its somewhat rigid structure prevent it from undergoing rapid, appreciable changes in shape. And the core is kept from moving within the Earth by those factors. That results in the solid core exerting earthquake triggering pressure at different locations or pressure points in the crust from inside the Earth. Where those pressure points are located is determined by factors such as the location of center of mass of the core relative to the sun – Earth – moon rotation barycenter and the rotational orientation of the Earth as it revolves once each day on its North and South Pole axis.


REFERENCE INFORMATION

How Earthquake Sensitives Predict Earthquakes, GeoMonitor: Earthquake Prediction News; April, 1996

Breathing of the seafloor: Tidal correlations of seismicity at Axial volcano, Geology; June 2002; v. 30; no. 6; p. 503-506 (See especially Figure 4A.) (Also, that paper contains a helpful list of references.)

'Restless Earth' May Give Advance Notice Of Large Earthquakes (NASA News)

Prediction of Destructive Earthquake by the MDCB-Method, Wang, Wen-xiang and Yang, Wu-yang, Xian Sub-Institute, Coal Science Research Institute of China  MDCB Web Site

Earthquake Triggering Processes

Earthquake Forecasting Resources Web Page

Earthquake Triggering Data For 1990 Through 2005, Wave Charts, Earthquake Data Fingerprints


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